# Euclid Frequently Asked Questions

Welcome to Euclid! This document is intended to help you use the facilities of this computer. It is arranged in a question-and-answer format.

## Basics

### How do I get online help?

There are five options.

### How do I get more help?

First, please read this document carefully to see if your question is already answered. If you can't find the answer, then send an email to the account requests@euclid.trentu.ca. To do this from Euclid, type:

pine requests

Alternately, if it is urgent, you can phone me at (748-1011)-1293.

### How do I transfer files?

Connect Euclid using the Secure File Transfer Protocol program SFTP. (We have blocked FTP access to Euclid because FTP is not secure.)

Use the following commands within SFTP:

• To send the file foobar from your computer to the other computer, type put foobar.
• To get the file foobar from the other computer to your computer, type get foobar.
• To see the contents of the current directory on the other computer, type ls. This works identically to the standard UNIX ls command.
• To change to a new directory on the other computer, type cd. This works identically to the standard UNIX cd command.
• To see the contents of the current directory on your own computer, type lls (local ls'). This works identically to the standard UNIX ls command.
• To change to a new directory on your own computer, type lcd (local cd'). This works identically to the standard UNIX cd command.
• When you're finished, type exit to quit.

### What password should I use, and how do I change it?

It is very important, when you log in for the first time, to change your password immediately. The initial' password you were given is not secure.

To change your password, type passwd. You will see:

Changing password for yourname

(current) UNIX password: 

Type your current password, hit return, and then enter your new password. You will have to type it a second time for confirmation.

Remember that the security of your account is not just your problem ---it is everyone's problem. If your security is compromised, then everyone's security is potentially compromised.

You should choose a password that is hard to guess. Your password should be at least 8 characters long, and a mixture of numbers and upper and lower case letters.

• Never use a real English word (eg. esoteric'). It can be easily guessed by a dictionary' program.

• Don't use a real word in any other language, either, especially not one you are known to speak. For example, if you speak Spanish, do not use contrasena' as your password. It can be easily guessed by a Spanish dictionary' program, if someone knows you speak Spanish.

• Never use a piece of obscure' mathematical jargon, or a mathematician's name (eg. homology' or Riemann'). It can be even more easily guessed by a math-specific dictionary' program.

• Never use a piece of personal information (eg. your husband's name, your birthday, etc.). It can be guessed by someone who does a little bit of background research on you.

• Never use clever' passwords, like PASSWORD', drowssap', secret', crypto', keepout', qwerasdf', opensesame', 3141592' or 12345678'. (I bet they'll never guess that one.'') Actually, they will.

• Never use the same password for more than one computer account. If someone breaks into one computer system, they will get access to all your accounts.

• Never, ever, email anyone your password. Email is not secure unless it is encrypted. If you want to tell someone your password through email, express it obscurely in the form of shared secret'. For example, if your password is 314lebesGUE', then describe it as, The first three digits in the decimal expansion of arccos(-1), followed by the last name of the inventor of modern measure and integration theory, with only the last three letters capitalized (eg. 123johnSON').'' If you don't share' any secrets with this person, you'd better phone them instead. (If you don't share any secrets and you don't know their phone number, why are you giving them your password?)

## UNIX basics

### What are files and directories?

Files are digital repositories of information. Each file contains some self-contained body of information: a document, an image, or a working computer program. You can imagine them to be the electronic equivalent of the books, papers, pictures, tools, or kitchen utensils that you leave lying around your house.

Directories are the virtual spaces' where files reside. You can imagine each directory to be like a room' in a vast mansion. The files in' that directory are like the books, pictures, and tools you find in that room. You can inspect these objects (ie. read' a file) or use these tools (ie. execute' a program). You can also copy them, rename them, or move them to another location.

The directories are arranged in a huge tree, like a family tree. Each directory has one or more subdirectories (its children') and also a single parent' directory. This structure is called the directory tree. Wherever you are, you are on some branch of the directory tree.

### What are filenames and pathnames?

Every person has a first name and a family name. Generally, their family name reflects their ancestry. In some cultures, the family name has the form Bob son of John son of Brian son of William' etc. You address someone by their first name if you're close to them, and you use their family name if you are distant.

In the same way, each file has a filename (like its first name') and path name which reflects its full ancestry' in the directory tree. For example, consider a file named mywork.tex in the subdirectory Work of the home directory of a user named bob. The filename of this file is just mywork.tex. However, its full pathname is:

/home/bob/Work/mywork.tex

How you address a file depends upon its physical location relative to you. You need to specify enough of its pathname to draw a path from your current directory to the file's location. This is called a relative pathname. For example, suppose you wanted to read the file mywork.tex. If you were currently in the directory /home/bob/Work/, then you would type:

 less mywork.tex

If you were in the directory /home/bob/, you would need to type:

 less Work/mywork.tex

Suppose you were in another subdirectory of /home/bob/. For example, suppose you were in /home/bob/Funstuff/. You use the symbol ../' to mean the parent directory to where I am now'. Hence, you would type:

 less ../Work/mywork.tex

If you were in directory /home/alice/, you would type:

 less ../Bob/Work/mywork.tex

If you were in directory /home/alice/Research/Stochastic/, you would type:

 less ../../../Bob/Work/mywork.tex

At a certain point, these relative pathnames can obviously become quite complex. An alternative is to use the absolute pathname of the file. You can do this from anywhere in the directory tree. Just type:

 less /home/bob/Work/mywork.tex

Finally, if you are the user bob, then a shortcut is available. No matter where you are in the directory tree, you can use ~' to refer to your home directory. Thus, you could type:

 less ~/Work/mywork.tex

Euclid translates this to mean less /home/bob/Work/mywork.tex'' Note that you could not do this if you were alice, because then Euclid would translate it to mean less /home/alice/Work/mywork.tex''.

### What is my home directory'?

When you log in, the place you find yourself is your home directory. All of your files are stored in your home directory, or in subdirectories of your home directory. Each user has their own home directory; The user alice has the home directory /home/alice/

### What is my login shell'?

When you log in using SSH, you interact with the computer by typing commands. The thing you are typing commands into is your login shell. Think of it as your virtual body', which you use to move through the space' of directories.

You interact with Euclid by typing commands' into the shell. A UNIX command takes the form:

 commandname -s1 -s2.... filename1 filename2 .... 

Here, commandname is the name of a program to be executed, -s1 -s2.... are one or more switches' which modify the behaviour of the program, and filename1 filename2... are the names of one or more files which the program is supposed to read as input, or transform in some way.

For example, to compress files, I use a program called gzip. To compress a file named masterwork.tex', I would type:

 gzip masterwork.tex 

I can also use the -v9' switch to specify maximum compression'. Then I would type:

 gzip -v9 masterwork.tex 

Note: UNIX commands are case sensitive. Thus, the program gzip is not the same as a program named Gzip'; the file named masterwork.tex' is not the same as a file named MasterWork.tex'; the switch -V9' may not have the same effect as the switch -v9'. The following commands do not mean the same thing:

 gzip -v9 masterwork.tex 

 gzip -V9 masterwork.tex 

 gzip -v9 MASTERWORK.TEX 

What are the special features of the login shell?   Your login shell has several convenient features:

• Command completion: If you partially type the name of a command or a file, and press TAB, your shell can often guess' the rest from context. For example, suppose I want to uncompress a file named foobar.gz. Normally, to do this, I would type

gunzip foobar.gz

However, I can shortcut this as follows. First I type

gun

Then I press TAB. The shell correctly guesses' that the command I want, and completes this to

gunzip

Then I type foo', so that I see:

gunzip foo

Now I press TAB again. If there are no other files in my current directory that begin with foo', then the shell will complete this to

gunzip foobar.gz

If there was another file (say, foobar.tex'), then the shell will complete as much as it can:

gunzip foobar.

And I must supply the rest (gz')

If there are several possible completion, and I press TAB twice, the shell will provide a list:

foobar.tex  foobar.gz  foobarific  foobar2

so that I know what my options are. Thus, this is a quick way to get a partial list of the files in a directory.

• Command history: Your shell remembers' previous commands you have typed into it. You can then recycle these commands, rather than typing them in again. Use the up- and down- arrow keys to scroll through the history of recent commands.

• Input/Output Redirection: UNIX allows you to redirect' the input or output of a program.
• Use '>' to send the output of a program into a file. For example, suppose I want to list the contents of the current directory, and put that list into a file named stuff'. I would type:

 ls  > stuff 

• Use <' to get the input for a program from a file.
• Use |' to pipe' the output of one program to another program. For example, suppose I list an extremely large directory, and the list scrolls past too fast too read. I can redirect the list to the text-reading program less', and read it at my leasure, by typing:

 ls | less 

### How do I change directories?

You use the cd (Change Directories') command. If you are in the directory /home/bob/ and you want to go to the subdirectory /home/bob/Work, you type:

cd Work

If you are in the directory /home/bob/ and you want to go to the subdirectory /home/bob/Work/Research/Galois/, you type:

cd Work/Research/Galois

You use  ../' to refer to the parent' of the directory you are currently in. For example, if you are in subdirectory /home/bob/Work/ and you want to go to directory /home/bob/, you type:

 cd ..

If you are in the subdirectory /home/bob/Work/Research/Galois/ and you want to go to the directory /home/bob/, you type:

 cd ../../..

If you are in the subdirectory /home/bob/Work/Research/Galois/ and you want to go to the directory /home/bob/Work/Research/Homology, you type:

 cd ../Homology

If you are in the subdirectory /home/bob/Work/Research/Galois/ and you want to go to the directory /home/bob/Work/Teaching/Calculus, you type:

 cd ../../Teaching/Calculus

Finally, if you are the user bob, then a shortcut is available. No matter where you are in the directory tree, you can use ~' to refer to your home directory. Thus, you could type:

 cd ~/Research/Teaching/Calculus

### How do I see what directory I'm in?

Type pwd' (Print Working Directory').

### How do I see the files in a directory?

Use the command ls (LiSt'). This is a very powerful command. To see a short list of all files in your current directory, type

 ls

If you are in the directory /home/bob/ and you want to see the subdirectory /home/bob/Work, you type:

ls Work

If you are in the directory /home/bob/ and you want to see the subdirectory /home/bob/Work/Research/Galois/, you type:

ls Work/Research/Galois

You use  ../' to refer to the parent' of the directory you are currently in. For example, if you are in subdirectory /home/bob/Work/ and you want to go to directory /home/bob/, you type:

 ls ..

If you are in the subdirectory /home/bob/Work/Research/Galois/ and you want to see the directory /home/bob/Work/Research/Homology, you type:

 ls ../Homology

To see all files that begin with the word linear', type:

 ls linear* 

To see all files that end with .tex' type:

 ls *.tex

To get a more verbose list, with information about the sizes, ages, and file permissions of all the files, use the -l' option. Type:

 ls -l 

For example, suppose you were in the subdirectory /home/bob/Work/Research/Galois/ and you want to get detailed information about all the $L$ATEX files in directory /home/bob/Work/Research/Homology which began with the word functor'. You would type:

 ls -l ../Homology/functor*.tex

### How do I copy files?

Use the cp (CoPy') command. To copy the file stuff to a file named morestuff, type:

cp stuff morestuff

To copy the file stuff to a file named morestuff in the subdirectory Work/, type:

cp stuff Work/morestuff

To copy the file stuff to a file also named stuff in the subdirectory Work/, type:

cp stuff Work/

### How do I move or rename files?

Use the mv (MoVe') command. To rename the file stuff to morestuff, type:

mv stuff morestuff

To move the file stuff to a file named morestuff in the subdirectory Work/, type:

mv stuff Work/morestuff

To move the file stuff to a file also named stuff in the subdirectory Work/, type:

mv stuff Work/

### How do I delete files/directories?

To delete a file, use the command rm (ReMove'). To remove the file stuff, type:

 rm stuff

To remove the file stuff in the subdirectory Work, type:

 rm Work/stuff

To remove a directory, use the command rmdir (ReMove DIRectory'). To remove the directory Work/, type:

 rmdir Work

Note: The rmdir command will only work if the directory Work/ is empty. To remove all files (but no subdirectories) of Work/, type

 rm Work/*

To remove all (empty) subdirectories of Work/, type

 rmdir Work/*

Unfortunately, this will not remove any nonempty subdirectories. To destroy all files and all subdirectories of Work/, we use the -R' (recursive') option. Type:

 rm -R Work/*

Warning: Never, ever use the -R' option with rm unless you are absolutely, absolutely sure of what you are doing. With a single keystroke, you may accidentally wipe out your entire filesystem. If you ever plan to use rm -R, then doublecheck that you have correctly specified the pathname. Then recite the Greek alphabet backwards, from omega to alpha. Then doublecheck again. Only then should you press RETURN

In particular, never, ever, ever type  rm -R *'', unless you want to destroy everything in your current directory and in all subdirectories.

## Documents: Editing, Printing, Converting

### How do I view text files?

To view a text file named stuff, type:

 less stuff 

### How do I edit files?

We have two editors, Pico and Emacs. We also have a powerful word-processor called OpenOffice, similar to Micro$oft Office. #### What is Pico and how do I use it? Pico is a very simple and basic editor, identical to the one found in the email program Pine. To edit a text file named stuff, type:  pico stuff. To quit pico, type [CTRl]-X. Help: There are two sources of help for pico: #### What is Emacs and how do I use it? Emacs is an extremely powerful editor (practically an operating system). Emacs has a graphical user interface and a text-based interface. To quit Emacs, type [CTRl]-X and then [CTRl]-C. Help: There are three sources of help for Emacs: • Graphical Internal Help: While using the graphical interface of emacs, you can get help at any time by dragging down the Help menu, available in the top right-hand corner of your window. You will see a list of options. The most useful for a beginner is probably the first one: Emacs tutorial. For more comprehensive help, try the fifth option: Read the Emacs Manual. • Text-based Internal Help: While using emacs, you can get help at any time by typing [CTRl]-H and then [CTRl]-H again. You will be presented with a menu of help options, each corresponding to a certain key. The most useful for a beginner is probably t', which leads to the Emacs learn by doing tutorial''. For more comprehensive help, try i', which leads to the info pages''. From here, you must scroll down to find the info page for Emacs. The text-based internal help is accessible from both the graphical and text interfaces. • Online Manual: Finally, comprehensive web-based help is available online from the GNU Emacs Online Manual #### What is OpenOffice and how do I use it? OpenOffice is an open-source clone of Micro$oft Office, and provides comprehensive word processing/spreadsheet/database capabilities.

To run OpenOffice, either click on the icon, or, from a shell, type ooffice &. To quit OpenOffice, drag down the File menu (top left-hand corner) and select Exit (the very last option).

Online Help: Drag down the Help menu (top right-hand corner), and select Contents (the first option). After a moment you will be presented with a table of contents of the OpenOffice online manual.

### How do I print files?

Euclid has a full-duplex laser printer. To print a file named stuff' in full duplex (ie. double-sided pages), type:

 print stuff

(it doesn't matter whether stuff is $L$ATEX, DVI, PostScript, PDF, etc.) To print the file stuff with single-sided pages, type:

 print1 stuff

To print a rough draft of the file stuff for proofreading, type:

 printd stuff

(this will save on toner). To pick up your print job, come by Marcus's office (OC 221.1). You should phone first (1293) to make sure he is in his office.

Note: You are welcome to use the printer as much as you want. However, please ask Marcus before launching extremely large print jobs (in excess of 100 pages). Also, please do not use the printer as a photocopier. Do not print the same file 80 times in a row. Photocopier toner is much cheaper than laserprinter toner, so using a laserprinter as a photocopier is a waste of money. It is also a waste of other people's time, because a laser printer is much slower than a photocopier, and it may take a full hour to print 80 copies, during which time no one else can use the printer. Don't do it.

### Document conversion:

#### How do I convert $L$ATEX to DVI?

Type latex [filename].tex.

#### How do I convert DVI to PostScript?

Type dvi2ps [filename].dvi.

#### How do I convert PostScript to PDF?

Type ps2pdf [filename].ps.

#### How do I convert PDF to PostScript?

Type pdf2ps [filename].pdf.

#### How do I convert HTML to PostScript?

Type html2ps [filename].html.

#### How do I convert HTML to PDF?

Type html2pdf [filename].html.

#### How do I convert $L$ATEX to to PDF?

Type latex2pdf [filename].tex

This invokes the program vtex. One advantage of direct $L$ATEX-to-PDF conversion is that $L$ATEX cross-referencing commands (like \ref{} or \cite{} are translated into hyperlinks within the PDF document. To do this, use Sebastian Rahtz's HyperRef package. Insert the following line at the beginning of your $L$ATEX document:

\usepackage[vtex]{hyperref}


Then compile the file using latex2pdf. All the \ref{} and \cite{} commands in your document will become PDF hyperlinks.

#### How do I convert $L$ATEX to HTML?

Type latex2html [filename].tex

This invokes Nikos Drakos' LaTeX2HTML program. The conversion process is quite lengthy, and the output is often quite huge. Typing latex2html foobar.tex will create a directory named foobar/, and, within this directory, a very large number of HTML and GIF files.

#### How do I convert Micro$oft(c) Word(c) .DOC files to PostScript? To do this, you must use OpenOffice. 1. Run OpenOffice. 2. Suppose the .DOC file is called important_memo.doc. To load it, drag down the File menu (top left-hand corner) and select Open (the second option). A file-choosing dialog box will appear. Navigate to the correct directory, and when you see the file important_memo.doc, double-click on it. 3. Now you have several options: • To print the file: drag down the File menu (top left-hand corner) and select Print (about half-way down). A dialog box called Print will appear. Select the appropriate options and click OK. • To convert to PostScript: drag down the File menu (top left-hand corner) and select Print (about half-way down). Click on the checkbox Print to file. A dialog box called Save as will appear. Type in the filename you want to save under (eg. gratuitous_administrivia.ps'), and click Save. The Save as' dialog box will disappear. Now, in the Print' dialog box, click OK. • To convert to another format (eg.text): drag down the File menu (top left-hand corner) and select Save as. A dialog box called Save as will appear. Use the File Type selector to select the desired file type (eg. text'). Also type in the filename you wish to save under (eg. gratuitous_administrivia.txt'). Then click OK. ## E-Mail ### How do I read/send my mail from my login shell? Type: pine. Then follow the instructions. ### What is WebMail, and how can I use it? Euclid has a web-based email interface called SquirrelMail. To access it, direct your browser to: http://euclid.trentu.ca/webmail SquirrelMail is very similar to GroupWise, but with two major advantages: • SquirrelMail doesn't crash four times a week, or randomly lose emails. • SquirrelMail accesses the same mailboxes that you access using pine. Hence, one day, you can read/write email over the web using SquirrelMail, and the next day, you can continue the same conversation thread using pine. ### Can I read/send my mail with web-based email software like Micro$oft Outlook or Netscape Communicator?

Certainly, provided that your software supports secure email (either POP or IMAP).
PLEASE NOTE

When connecting to Euclid via Secure POP and Secure IMAP, you may receive a pop-up window informing you that This site's certificate could not be verified''. If this happens, simply click the 'Continue' or 'OK' buttons; optionally, if your program has this option, you can choose (via a checkbox) to 'Always accept this certificate'. This is recommended, and will prevent these pop-up windows from reappearing.

#### What is Secure POP Mail?

Secure POP is one method for email retrieval. When using a secure POP mail reader (such as Outlook, Mozilla Mail, etc) one can retrieve the contents of their email remotely, and with better security than normal email readers. This means that you can access your Euclid email from home by setting up a secure POP compatible mail reader.

*NOTE* If you use POP mail from one computer, and then want to access your saved email messages from a different computer (on-campus, your office, etc) you will discover your inbox is empty. This is due to the fact that POP mail downloads your email from Euclid to your computers hard drive. For many users this is completely acceptable, if you are not one of these users, then read the section below on IMAP access, which does not delete your mail from the Euclid server.

Secure IMAP mail is another method of email retrieval. With Secure IMAP you can use an email client program (Netscape Communicator, M$Outlook, etc) to interact with your Euclid email account. With Secure IMAP, when you download your email onto a computer, the emails are not deleted from the Euclid server. For example, this means that if you want to have access to your email from home via IMAP, and still be able to log into Euclid with SSH and use PINE, your emails will be visible from both locations. #### How do I configure Secure POP? #### Quick setup information for experts: (full instructions are given below for non-experts) • POP/ IMAP Server name: euclid.trentu.ca • SMTP Server name (IF setting up from your office): euclid.trentu.ca (otherwise use your ISP's smtp server) • NOTE: you must select SSL Secure connection options for either POP or IMAP #### Setting up POP in Netscape Mail (versions < 6.0) Netscape Versions less than 6.0 may not use POP mail because these versions do not support secure password authentication. If you are using Netscape with a version number less than 6.0, please refer to the section on setting up IMAP mail, as netscape WILL support secure IMAP. #### Setting up POP in Mozilla Mail (or Netscape versions >= 6.0) 1. In a Mozilla browser window, click the WINDOW menu 2. click the MAIL & NEWSGROUPS option 3. click the EDIT menu and choose MAIL & NEWS ACCOUNT SETTINGS At this point you will see a split screen window, on the left will be a list of options to choose from, and on the right will be associated text boxes and check boxes. 4. Select 'OUTGOING SERVER (SMTP)' from the left, and then 5. On the right, there is a box asking for SERVER NAME. In this box you will enter text depending on which of the following situations you are in: If you setting this up from your HOME computer, (ie: NOT your office computer) then in the box you must enter the address provided by your internet provider for SMTP Service. For example, if you are on Bell Sympatico, you would enter: smtp1.sympatico.ca or some variant thereof. If you are setting this up from your OFFICE computer, you may use the Euclid SMTP server PROVIDED that you have given the System Administrator your computers IP address. The address you would fill in your SMTP SERVER would then be: euclid.trentu.ca 6. Click the 'ADD ACCOUNT' button, and the "Account Wizard" will appear 7. Select the 'EMAIL ACCOUNT' option and click NEXT 8. Fill in your NAME and FULL email address (ie: joey@euclid.trentu.ca), and click NEXT 9. Select the POP Option and then enter: euclid.trentu.ca in the box asking for INCOMING SERVER; then click NEXT 10. Now enter your Euclid user name (the part before the @euclid.trentu.ca in your email address); then click NEXT 11. Now give this account a Nickname you can refer to (ie: Euclid Account); then click NEXT 12. Review the information presented, and the click FINISH. 13. Now, on the left of your screen, select the option 'SERVER SETTINGS' 14. On the right of your screen, check the box labeled "USE SECURE CONNECTION (SSL)" 15. Click OK 16. you are now ready to use Mozilla with your Euclid email account. #### Setting up POP in Micro$oft Outlook Express

1. From your Outlook main screen Click the TOOLS menu, and choose ACCOUNTS
2. Click the ADD button, and then choose MAIL
3. Enter your full name and click NEXT
4. Select 'I already have an email address' and enter your euclid email address in the box.
5. Click NEXT
6. From the drop-down list, select POP
7. For the INCOMING MAIL SERVER, enter: euclid.trentu.ca
8. For the OUTGOING MAIL (SMTP) SERVER box, you will enter text depending on which of the following situations you are in:

If you setting this up from your HOME computer, (ie: NOT your office computer) then in the box you must enter the address provided by your internet provider for SMTP Service. For example, if you are on Bell Sympatico, you would enter:

smtp1.sympatico.ca
or some variant thereof.

If you are setting this up from your OFFICE computer, you may use the Euclid SMTP server PROVIDED that you have given the System Administrator your computers IP address. The address you would fill in your SMTP SERVER would then be:

euclid.trentu.ca

9. Click NEXT
10. Enter your account name (the part before @euclid.trentu.ca your email address)
11. Enter your account password, then click NEXT
12. Click FINISH
13. you will now see a list of ACCOUNTS, near the bottom you should see 'euclid.trentu.ca'
14. Click this entry ONCE, and then click the PROPERTIES button
15. Click on the ADVANCED tab (near the top of the window)
16. You will see 'INCOMING MAIL ( POP3)' and then a checkbox which says 'THIS SERVER REQUIRES A SECURE CONNECTION (SSL)', check this box.
**NOTE** DO NOT Check the box below 'OUTGOING MAIL (SMTP) **
17. Click OK
18. Click CLOSE
19. You are now ready to use Outlook Express with your Euclid email account.

#### My email program wasn't listed above!

If you aren't using one of the above email programs, you can still use the Euclid mail server. Consult your programs' documentation or website for information on how to configure it. Use the following as your server settings:

NOTE: Remember to select SECURE CONNECTIONS when configuring your software

• INCOMING ( POP or IMAP) Server Name:
euclid.trentu.ca
• OUTGOING (SMTP) Server Name:
• If you are in your office, type:
euclid.trentu.ca
• If you at home, use the SMTP server provided by your ISP. (ie: Bell Sympatico users would use: smtp1.sympatico.ca)

#### Quick setup information for experts:

(full instructions are given below for non-experts)

• POP/ IMAP Server name: euclid.trentu.ca
• SMTP Server name (IF setting up from your office): euclid.trentu.ca (otherwise use your ISP's smtp server)
• NOTE: you must select SSL Secure connection options for either POP or IMAP

#### Setting up IMAP in Netscape Mail (versions < 6.0)

1. In a Netscape browser window, click the COMMUNICATOR menu
2. click the MESSENGER option
3. click the EDIT menu, and choose PREFERENCES
At this point you will see a split screen window, on the left will be a list of options to choose from, and on the right will be associated text boxes and check boxes.
4. click IDENTITY on the left, and then on the right, enter at least your Full name and Email address (ie: myname@euclid.trentu.ca )
5. click MAIL SERVERS on the left, and then on the right click the 'Add..' button.
6. a new window will appear. In the GENERAL section, where it says SERVER NAME enter the text: euclid.trentu.ca
7. Select IMAP from the SERVER TYPE dropdown list
8. where it says USER NAME, enter your Euclid user name. (this is the part before @euclid.trentu.ca in your email address)
9. Click on the ' IMAP' tab (near the top of this window)
10. check the box labelled 'USE SECURE CONNECTION (SSL)'
11. Click OK
12. On the screen you sent back to, there is a spot which is asking for OUTGOING MAIL (SMTP) SERVER. In this box you will enter text depending on which of the following situations you are in:

If you setting this up from your HOME computer, (ie: NOT your office computer) then in the box you must enter the address provided by your internet provider for SMTP Service. For example, if you are on Bell Sympatico, you would enter:

smtp1.sympatico.ca
or some variant thereof.

If you are setting this up from your OFFICE computer, you may use the Euclid SMTP server PROVIDED that you have given the System Administrator your computers IP address. The address you would fill in your SMTP SERVER would then be:

euclid.trentu.ca

13. For the option OUTGOING MAIL USER NAME, enter your Euclid user name (the part before @euclid.trentu.ca in your email address)
14. Click OK
15. You are now ready to use Netscape email with your Euclid email account.

#### Setting up IMAP in Mozilla Mail (or Netscape versions >= 6.0)

1. In a Mozilla browser window, click the WINDOW menu
2. click the MAIL & NEWSGROUPS option
3. click the EDIT menu and choose MAIL & NEWS ACCOUNT SETTINGS
At this point you will see a split screen window, on the left will be a list of options to choose from, and on the right will be associated text boxes and check boxes.
4. Select 'OUTGOING SERVER (SMTP)' from the left, and then
5. On the right, there is a box asking for SERVER NAME. In this box you will enter text depending on which of the following situations you are in:

If you setting this up from your HOME computer, (ie: NOT your office computer) then in the box you must enter the address provided by your internet provider for SMTP Service. For example, if you are on Bell Sympatico, you would enter:

smtp1.sympatico.ca
or some variant thereof.

If you are setting this up from your OFFICE computer, you may use the Euclid SMTP server PROVIDED that you have given the System Administrator your computers IP address. The address you would fill in your SMTP SERVER would then be:

euclid.trentu.ca

6. Click the 'ADD ACCOUNT' button, and the "Account Wizard" will appear
7. Select the 'EMAIL ACCOUNT' option and click NEXT
8. Fill in your NAME and FULL email address (ie: joey@euclid.trentu.ca), and click NEXT
9. Select the IMAP Option and then enter: euclid.trentu.ca in the box asking for INCOMING SERVER; then click NEXT
10. Now enter your Euclid user name (the part before the @euclid.trentu.ca in your email address); then click NEXT
11. Now give this account a Nickname you can refer to (ie: Euclid Account); then click NEXT
12. Review the information presented, and the click FINISH.
13. Now, on the left of your screen, select the option 'SERVER SETTINGS'
14. On the right of your screen, check the box labeled "USE SECURE CONNECTION (SSL)"
15. Click OK
16. you are now ready to use Mozilla with your Euclid email account.

## Web

### How do I create webpages on Euclid?

In your home directory, there is a subdirectory called www/. Any file you put into this directory will be visible to anyone on the World Wide Web. Because of this, do not put any confidential or sensitive information in the www/ directory.

### How do I create webpages on Ebony?

Ebony is the main Trent University webserver, and is the home of all webpages whose names begin: www.trentu.ca. To create webpages here, you must

1. Obtain an Ebony account from the Computing Services Department. (This usually takes a while). Send mail to mailto:helpdesk@trentu.ca

You will be given an account with the same name as your email account, and a cryptic password like Q3srTa4qD'' (which you cannot change).

2. Create and edit your files on your own computer, until you are happy with them.

3. Log into Ebony using FTP (you are not allowed to log in using telnet, SSH, or SFTP, for security' reasons)

4. Type cd /cwis/www/academic/math/ to get to the Mathematics webspace on Ebony.

5. Upload your files to the proper location inside the Mathematics webspace.

IF you aren't happy with the way the files look, repeat steps 2-5.

### How do I see my Euclid webpages?

All of your webpages will be visible at the URL euclid.trentu.ca/yourname/. For example, suppose the user named alice created a file called research.html in her www/ directory. To see it, you would send your browser to


http://euclid.trentu.ca/alice/research.html

The file index.html' is always the default' file in any directory. For example, suppose alice created the directory www/Teaching/, and then created the file www/Teaching/index.html. To see it, you could go to

 http://euclid.trentu.ca/alice/Teaching/index.html

but you could also just go to

 http://euclid.trentu.ca/alice/Teaching/

### How do I learn more about HTML?

Two good references are:

## Mathematics

### What is MAPLE and how do I run it?

MAPLE is a powerful symbolic manipulation package created by the MAPLE project at Waterloo University. Using MAPLE, you can solve complex algebraic or differential equations and manipulate or compute expressions involving integrals, (power) series, and special functions. You can also generate 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional plots or even animations. MAPLE 9 is the latest version, and features powerful tools for designing audiovisial or interactive learning aids for teaching mathematics.

MAPLE 9 has three user interfaces:

• The 'standard' graphical interface.
• The classic' graphical interface.
• The text-based interface.

The 'standard' graphical interface is a new interface in MAPLE, which feels very similar to a web browser. To run MAPLE, in standard' mode, either click on the icon      ,   or, from a shell, type: xmaple.

The 'classic' graphical interface is what users of previous versions of MAPLE will be familiar with. To run MAPLE, in classic' mode either click on the icon      ,   or, from a shell, type cmaple or maple -cw.

The text-based interface is good for accessing MAPLE remotely over the internet, but is quite unfriendly for novices. To run MAPLE, in text mode from a shell, type: maple.

Help: MAPLE comes with extensive online help. We also have a short Web-based introduction.

To quit MAPLE, type:  quit;'.

### What is Maxima and how do I run it?

To run Maxima, from a shell, type maxima. To quit Maxima, type: quit();'.

Help: There are three sources of help for Maxima:

• Internal help system: A description of a given command can be obtained by typing describe(command);' or, simply, ? command;'.
• Web-based documentation (extensive).
• Man page (brief)

### What is GNUPlot and how do I run it?

GNUPlot is a simple graphing program which allows you to plot curves and surfaces in two or three dimensions. GNUPlot is not as sophisticated as MAPLE or Maxima, but has the advantage of being small, efficient, and relatively simple to use.

To run GNUPlot from a shell, type: gnuplot. To quit GNUplot, type: quit;'.

Help: There are three sources of help for GNUplot:

### What is Xcalc and how do I run it?

Xcalc is a scientific calculator with a graphical user interface that emulates a TI-30 or HP-10C pocket calculator.

To run Xcalc from a shell, type xcalc &'.

### What is BC` and how do I run it?

 Go to Mathematics Home Page Go to Trent University Home Page

This document was prepared by Adam Hulcoop and Marcus Pivato, and was last updated 2003-09-01